It is recommended to get an influenza vaccination once a year as the strains of the influenza virus evolve quickly. People aged 65 years and older, those who have heart disease, asthma, pulmonary emphysema, diabetes, kidney disease, and blood-related diseases as well as immunodeficiency or taking immunosuppressive drugs are advised to get a flu shot.
Pneumococcal vaccine prevents infection of pneumococcus, which is the most common cause of infections and pneumonia. The infection can escalate to death. Thus, people who are at risk of serious infections such as those aged 65 and older, patients who have their spleen removed, those who have immune deficiency, those who are taking immunosuppressants, those who have heart disease, asthma, emphysema, cirrhosis, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes as well as those who regularly smokes are advised to get vaccinated.
Tdap (Tetanus, Diphtheria, acellular Pertussis) vaccine
The elderly are advised to get Tdap (Tetanus, Diphtheria, acellular Pertussis) vaccine in order to boost their immune system to protect them from tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis. Another vaccine, called Td, protects against tetanus and diphtheria, but not pertussis. Tdap is given only once in a lifetime and a Td booster should be given every ten years.
People aged 60 years and older are advised to get zoster vaccine since they are at the age at risk of having shingles or herpes zoster. People aged between 50 and 59 years and wish to get vaccinated should consult with doctors as this vaccine is effective in the first five years. It is given in one dose as a shot.
Hepatitis A vaccination
Hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for patients who suffer from chronic liver disease as they have a high risk of getting hepatitis A, chefs, homosexual men, drug addicts, and those travelling to countries that have high or intermediate rates of infection. These patients are advised to receive one vaccination.
Hepatitis B is a chronic disease that leads to other diseases such as cirrhosis and liver cancer. High-risk groups for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection include drug addicts, homosexuals, persons with chronic kidney disease and are undergoing dialysis, those who often receive blood transfusion, and those with family members who have hepatitis B. These people are advised to receive three doses of hepatitis vaccine. Receive the first shot, followed in 1-2 months by the second shot. The third shot is given six months following the first shot.