• Welcome to our healthcare knowledge. Here you can find healthcare reliable information from the hospital to help educate yourself
  • Welcome to our healthcare knowledge. Here you can find healthcare reliable information from the hospital to help educate yourself
  • Welcome to our healthcare knowledge.Here you can find healthcare reliable information from the hospital to help educate yourself
  • Welcome to our healthcare knowledge. Here you can find healthcare reliable information from the hospital to help educate yourself
   
 
         
         
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Cervical Cancer

Welcome to the Center for Information of Cervical Cancer

Bangkok-Phuket Oncology Center of Bangkok Hospital Phuket is ready to help you or your loved one who has been diagnosed with cancer. Our team of doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals are dedicated to providing the highest quality of screening, counseling, and care for people with this disease.

Basic knowledge of cancer

Here you can find useful information about disease, symptoms, treatments to help you and your family easily find health care information.

Below is the basic knowledge of cervical cancer, you can click on the topic to read more:

Cervical CancerCervical CancerCervical Cancer

What is cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb). The cervix connects the body of the uterus to the vagina (birth canal).

What are the risk factors for cervical cancer?

Cervical Cancer
  1. Human papilloma virus infection (HPV)
    HPV infection is the main cause of the cervical cancer. It is commonly transmitted through sexual contact. Most of the adults are infected by HPV at some point during the life time; however it is usually self-limited and controlled by our normal body immune system. Even though there are many types of HPV, only the high-risk HPV types are strongly associated with various types of cancers include cervical cancer, vulva, and vaginal cancer, penile cancer, as well as anal canal and oral cancer. These high-risk HPV are type 16, 18, 31, 33, and 45. Approximately 70% of all cervical cancers are caused by HPV type 16 and 18.
  2. Smoking
  3. Having many sexual partners
  4. Immunosuppression
  5. Oral contraceptives (birth control pills)
  6. Multiple pregnancies
  7. Poverty
  8. Exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES)

What are the symptoms of cervical cancer?

Cervical Cancer

Early cervical cancer usually has no symptoms. However, as the disease progresses, the following signs and symptoms may appear:

  • Vaginal bleeding after intercourse, between periods or after menopause
  • Watery, bloody or foul smell vaginal discharge
  • Pelvic pain or pain during intercourse
  • Leg swelling
  • Low back pain

Can cervical cancer be found early?

Cervical Cancer

Regular screening for cervical cancer and precancerous changes is recommended for all women. Most guidelines recommend starting screening at age of 21 years. Screening tools for cervical cancer includes:

  • Papani-Culaou (Pap) test
    PAP smear is the cytologic study that the doctor uses a brush or small spatula to pick up some cell samples from cervical surface and examine them under microscopy. This test will take a few minutes and may cause a slight discomfort.
  • HPV DNA test
    The doctor will collect some cervical cells and test for HPV infection.

How is cervical cancer diagnosed?

Cervical Cancer

If you have signs and symptoms of cervical cancer or if a Pap test has cancerous cells, the next steps are:

  • Colposcopy - Colposcopy is done to check if the cervix had the abnormal areas.
  • Biopsy - The doctor may remove a sample (or the area) of unusual cells from your cervix using special biopsy tools.
  • Conization - Remove a cone-shaped area of cervical cells.

Staging

Cervical Cancer

If you or your love ones have cervical cancer, the next step is to undergo additional tests to determine whether your cancer has spread or not and to what extent. The staging process includes:

  • Examination of urinary bladder and rectum
    Your doctor may use special scopes to see inside your urinary bladder (cystoscopy) and the rectum (proctoscopy).
  • Imaging study
    This imaging study includes plain x-rays, computerized tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It will help the doctor to determine if cervical cancer has spread beyond cervix.

Staging of the cervical cancer includes:

  • Stage I. Cancer is confined to the cervix.
  • Stage II. Cancer includes the cervix and uterus, but hasn't spread to the pelvic wall or the lower portion of the vagina.
  • Stage III. It has moved beyond the cervix and uterus to the pelvic wall or the lower portion of the vagina.
  • Stage IV. Cancer has spread to nearby organs, such as the bladder or rectum, or it has spread to other areas of the body, such as the lungs, liver or bones.

How is cervical cancer treated?

Cervical Cancer

The treatment of cervical cancer is depending on several factors, such as the stage of the disease, and your other health problems. Your treatment plan will be tailored by our specialists and will be aim for the best possible outcomes. The treatment alternatives include:

  • Surgery
    Hysterectomy can cure early-stage cervical cancers. The most commonly performed surgical procedure is a radical hysterectomy or Wertheim's hysterectomy. This type of operation is only carried out by specially trained oncology gynecologists not only to cure the disease but also to prevent recurrence.
  • Radiotherapy
    Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy can be given externally using external beam radiation or internally (brachytherapy) by placing devices filled with radioactive material close to your cervix. Radiation therapy may also be considered as a treatment alternative to surgery in early-stage cervical cancer. For women with more advanced cervical cancer, radiation combined with chemotherapy is considered the most effective treatment.

 


Remark:

  • This information should not be used as a substitute to consultation from a physician. Always talk with your doctor about diagnosis and treatment information.
  • The service center is Bangkok-Phuket Oncology Center of Bangkok Hospital Phuket.
  • For more information about our medical services, please contact us at info@phukethospital.com
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