Welcome to the Center for Information of Cancer. Here, you can find information to help you better understand breast cancer!
Below is the basic knowledge of breast cancer, you can click on the topic to read more.
Incidence and risk factors
The incidence of breast cancer has been increasing among both Thai women and the women around the world. In Thailand, Breast cancer incidence reached 29.9/100,000 population in 2008. National Cancer Center reported beast cancer as a number one cancer in Thai women in 2010. Early screening (including digital mammography and ultrasonography) currently plays an important role in early diagnosis and prevent of this deadly disease.
The exact cause of breast cancer is still under the investigation among scientists and researcher worldwide. However, some significant risk factors have been reported. These include particular type of steroidal hormones, genetic factors and environmental factors. Furthermore, women who are at higher risks are the ones who have early menarche, late menopause, infertility, and those women who have their first child after the age of 30 years old. Breast cancer is commonly found the forth decade of life. Nevertheless it is not always applicable in Asian population. They tend to develop the disease in earlier phase of lives.
Presentation and Natural History
Once the cancer develops, it will actively spread through surrounding structures such as mammary ducts, basement membrane, mammary fat, underlying muscle, overlying skin, blood vessels and lymphatic system. In addition, when cancer cells invade to the dermis deep lymphatic system, the patient will have Peau d' orange appearance of the skin.
Treatment plan is depending on the stage of the disease (preoperative staging). For the tumor that confined locally, the surgical alternative will depend up on:
- Tumor factors: tumor size, histopathology criteria and the position of the tumor
- Facility facts: hospital facility, operation and doctor teams
- Patient decision
The high quality of breast imaging technology and multidisciplinary team approach will facilitate both early diagnosis and less radical surgery. Breast conserving surgery is a current surgical alternative for curative treatment. The combination of breast conserving surgery and external irradiation provide an equivalent chance for cure when compared with conventional mastectomy.
It has been reported that conventional axillary dissection may lead to a number of subsequence morbidities including ipsilateral arm lymphedema and shoulder stiffness. Bangkok Phuket Hospital has a capability to perform sentinel lymph node biopsy. This technique is used to detect the first few draining lymph nodes from the primary breast cancer. It can be applied to prevent unnecessary operation and its potential complications.
For those patients with locally advance cases who radical mastectomy will be the only chance for cure, artificial breast implantation or breast reconstruction using the nearby tissue will be offered to preserve the patient preference image.